Family: Hygrophoraceae
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Fungi:> Basidiomycota:> Agaricomycetes:> Agaricales:> Tricholomataceae:> Camarophyllus, Gliophorus, Humidicutis, Hygrocybe, Hygrophorus.
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This is a large group of around 60 species in New Zealand, of which most are small to medium-sized and brightly coloured, saprophytic on leaf litter with white spores. Their common name of waxgill or waxcap is due to the wax like appearance of the gill surface. This family is divided into a number of different genus based on microscopic features.

As usual, the moment you start looking closely at a family, it's not long before misidentified and unnamed species start turning up. Unfortunately, recent DNA sequencing has done little to sort these out, other than to confirm that there are misidentified and unnamed species present in New Zealand.
 
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Genus: Camarophyllus
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This genus is not as showy as many of the waxgills. Colours range from pale colours to orange or grey with decurrent gills. The size ranges from as small as 25 mm in one species to 100 mm in another. Microscopically, they are recognised by their interwoven gill tissue.  
Camarophyllus apricosus
Camarophyllus apricosus
Camarophyllus apricosus
Camarophyllus aurantiopallens
Camarophyllus muritaiensis
Camarophyllus muritaiensis
Camarophyllus pratensis var. gracilis
Camarophyllus pratensis var. gracilis
 
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Genus: Cuphophyllus Undescribed Cuphophyllus  
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Species are distinguished from most other waxcaps by producing basidiocarps (fruit bodies) with strongly decurrent lamellae (gills). Microscopically, they have interwoven (or rarely almost subregular) lamellar trama, with or without a regular or subregular central strand. Resent DNA sequencing has shown this to be a unnamed species.  

Cuphophyllus griseorufescens
Cuphophyllus canusCuphophyllus canus Camarophyllus sp.
Cuphophyllus sp
   
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Genus: Gliophorus
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These are small, brightly-coloured, saprobic, soil and litter-inhabiting fungi. Gliophorus distinguishes themselves by having a thick glutinous cap and stem that is viscid to glutinous, in some cases with a glutinous edge to the gills. There are at least twelve Gliophorus species reported in New Zealand and a few undescribed ones. Identification is largely dependent on colouration, size, subtle textural and the shape of the cap. Hygrophorus Spores
Gliophorus chromolimoneus
Gliophorus chromolimoneus
 Gliophorus fumosogriseus
Gliophorus fumosogriseus
 Gliophorus graminicolor
Gliophorus graminicolor
Gliophorus lilacinoides
Gliophorus lilacinoides
Gliophorus lilacipes
Gliophorus lilacipes
Gliophorus luteoglutinosus
Gliophorus luteoglutinosus
Gliophorus pallidus
Gliophorus pallidus
Gliophorus psittacinus
Gliophorus psittacinus
 
Gliophorus sulfureus
Gliophorus sulfureus
Gliophorus versicolor
Gliophorus versicolor
Gliophorus viridis
Gliophorus viridis
Gliophorus viscaurantius
Gliophorus
viscaurantius
 
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Undescribed Gliophorus Species
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Gliophorus sp.Gliophorus species
Gliophorus sp.Gliophorus sp
Gliophorus sp.
Gliophorus species
Gliophorus sp.
Gliophorus species
 
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Genus: Humidicutis
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This small genus of brightly coloured saprobic agarics is distinguished from the other wax-gills by the cap that splits even in very young specimens. The split occurs in such a way as to pull apart the two faces of a single gill. found growing in moss or leaf litter on the forest floor during late autumn, with caps that are moist to viscid. Microscopically, it is recognised by the absence of clamp connections in all tissues except at the base of basidia where large medallion clamps occur.  
Humidicutis conspicua
Humidicutis conspicua
Humidicutis multicolor
Humidicutis multicolor
Humidicutis mavis
Humidicutis mavis
Humidicutis rosella
Humidicutis rosella

 

Humidicutis luteovirens
Humidicutis luteovirens
  

 

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Undescribed Humidicutis Species
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Humidicutis sp.
Humidicutis species
Humidicutis sp.
Humidicutis species
     
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Genus: Hygrocybe
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This large group of saprobic fungi, with white spores, have thick waxy gills and a translucent texture, particularly evident in the gills. Some are drab, but most are bright with striking colours dominated by red, orange and yellow fruiting body’s. commonly found during the colder and wetter months of the year, sometimes in large numbers. Microscopically, this genus is distinguished from the other waxgills in this group by sub parallel to parallel lamellar trama.  
Hygrocybe cavipes
Hygrocybe cavipes
Hygrocybe cerinolutea
Hygrocybe cerinolutea
Hygrocybe blanda
Hygrocybe blanda
Hygrocybe elegans
Hygrocybe elegans
 
Hygrocybe fuliginata
Hygrocybe fuliginata
Hygrocybe fuscoaurantiaca
Hygrocybe fuscoaurantiaca
Hygrocybe julietae
Hygrocybe julietae
Hygrocybe keithgeorgii
Hygrocybe keithgeorgii
 
Hygrocybe lilaceolamellata
Hygrocybe lilaceolamellata
Hygrocybe miniceps
Hygrocybe miniceps
Hygrocybe procera
Hygrocybe procera
Hygrocybe rubrocarnosa
Hygrocybe rubrocarnosa
 
Hygrocybe striatolutea
Hygrocybe striatolutea
       
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Undescribed: Hygrocybe
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Hygrocybe sp.
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe cantharellus
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe miniata
Hygrocybe species
 
Hygrocybe sp.
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe sp.
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe sp.
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species
Hygrocybe species
 
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Hygrocybe Section Firmae
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Section Firmae contains fungi which have dimorphous spores and, in some cases, basida (Dimorphous means of two different sizes). Only one species is described in New Zealand. This is H. firma. This name is doubtful and originates from a species found in Sri Lanka.

The available description for H. firma does not match any of the known species found in NZ, with recent DNA sequencing confirming that we have six species within sect. Firmae, none of which are named, and also confirms that H. firma is not found in NZ. found in.

The following are four species that I have come across that are in sect. firmae. I don’t know if these are the same as the six mentioned above or different ones again. Care is needed when looking at these microscopically, as failing to see the dimorphous spores can result in this species being miss-identified.
Hygrocybe firma
Hygrocybe aff. firma
(orange/yellow)

Hygrocybe firma
Hygrocybe firma


Hygrocybe firma
Hygrocybe aff. firma
(Red)
Hygrocybe firma
Hygrocybe aff. firma
(Large Red)
 
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Blackening waxgills
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This small group of waxgills are recognised by their habit of going black with age or when damaged. Three species are found in NZ. Only two are shown here. One, H. astatogala is native and found in forest habitats, and the other two are introduced and found in grassland.  H. astatogala comes in different colour formswhich, no one has explained why this is the case.
 
Bertrandia asatogala
Hygrocybe astatogala
Hygrocybe sp.
Hygrocybe astatogala
Bertrandia sp
Hygrocybe astatogala
Hygrocybe conica
Hygrocybe conica
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Genus: Hygrophorus Genus: Neohygrocybe  
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This genus is also part of the wax gill group and is believed to be mycorrhizal. Colours tend to be dull whites and yellows. Recognised microscopically by their divergent lamellar trama.
A small genus of two described species in New Zealand that look more like a Tricholoma species than a Hygrocybe. Thus, they are often overlooked or misidentified.  
Hygrophorus involutus
Hygrophorus involutus
Hygrophorus salmonipes
Hygrophorus salmonipes
Neohygrocybe sp.Neohygrocybe sp.    
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Genus: Porpolomopsis
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Species of Porpolomopsis have also formerly been placed in the genus Humidicutis, to which they are closely related but differ in having narrowly attached or free gills and in the shape of the hyphae in their caps. Only one species is recorded in New Zealand.

 
Humidicutis lewelliniae
Porpolomopsis lewelliniae
         
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